In 1789, the year of the French Revolution, Saint Domingue (now Haiti) was the richest colony in the world. The source of this wealth was the exploitation of half a million black slaves who furnished the labor for the sugar, indigo, cotton, cocoa, coffee, and tobacco extracted from over 2,000 plantations. In principle, a series of royal edicts called the code noir (slave code) regulated the conduct of the white slave owners in France’s colonies. The code noir sanctioned corporal punishment, among other things, but in practice even this code’s few admonitions to feed, clothe, and refrain from raping one’s slaves went unenforced, and the plantation owners did as they wished. In fact many worked their slaves to death, since it was usually cheaper to buy than raise a slave. Hence the common proverb of colonialists of those days:
I'm not sure why I've been such a failure on Tumblr
The only followers I have here are ones who’ve followed me from other sites. I can’t pinpoint a single person who’s actually found me here. I used to think that was just because it was the last site I joined and most of the people who were into the sort of thing I shared had already found me. In other words I was making the assumption, I’d reached the limit of all the people who were ever likely to find my stuff interesting. Then I joined Pinterest and quite a few new people found me there, so now I’m back to wondering why I’m so wrong for Tumblr.
Jon Matonis (@JonMatonis) writes in Forbes about the ability to add funds to a credit card (just like what might happen when getting a refund from a merchant). Excerpts:
“[This feature] leverages a little-known type of transaction that is available on the VisaNet system called ‘Original Credit Transaction’. The other major card payment networks have a similar feature too.” “Previously, it was cumbersome for bitcoin account holders to transact in national currencies because they had to go through one or more exchanges and then wait further for funds to arrive in a bank account or other intermediary.” “Withdraw2Card’s] service fee is $9 plus 1.99% (for MtGox USD) with a $1,000 maximum transfer amount.” “By removing friction from the process, bitcoin becomes easier to spend overall because not every merchant will accept bitcoin directly for payment yet and not all transactions demand irreversibility and privacy.”
“The baby is cleaned off, examined and wrapped in a towel. Katie, the Australian midwife, brings the baby to the mother’s face so that she can see her while we are finishing the c-section. The mother makes no expression, but tears roll down her face when she sees her healthy baby.”—MSF obstetrician-gynecologist, Veronica Ades, tells the story of delivering a baby for a patient who has already lost her first two and how women’s reactions to these traumatic experiences in South Sudan differ so massively from those in the U.S., where Veronica is from. (via doctorswithoutborders)